The hydroxyl groups in alcohol molecules are responsible for hydrogen bonding between the alcohol molecules. As greater energy is required to overcome these strong intermolecular forces, the melting points and boiling points of alcohols are higher than those of alkanes with a corresponding chain length.
Why do alcohols have higher boiling points than aldehydes?
Hydrogen bonding is stronger than dipole-dipole interaction, and so therefore the boiling points for alcohols are higher than the boiling points for aldehydes or ketones, but aldehydes and ketones have a higher boiling point than alkanes because dipole-dipole interactions are stronger than London dispersion forces.
Why do alcohols have higher boiling points than ethers?
Alcohols have higher boiling points than do ethers and alkanes of similar molar masses because the OH group allows alcohol molecules to engage in hydrogen bonding.
Why do primary alcohols have higher boiling points?
From my understanding, for homologous alcohols, primary alcohols have the highest boiling points, because the OH group is the most accessible for other molecules to hydrogen bond to, therefore stronger intermolecular forces result in higher mp/bp.
Why do alkenes have lower boiling points than alcohols?
Boiling points of alkenes depends on more molecular mass (chain length). The more intermolecular mass is added, the higher the boiling point. Intermolecular forces of alkenes gets stronger with increase in the size of the molecules.
Why alcohols have higher boiling points than their analogous hydrocarbons?
Alcohols have higher boiling points than their analogous hydrocarbons as a result of their polarized O–H bonds, in which oxygen is partially negative and hydrogen is partially positive. This enables the oxygen atoms of other alcohol molecules to be attracted to the hydrogen, forming a hydrogen bond.
Why alcohol has higher boiling point than aldehyde and ketone?
In alcohols hydrogen bonding exists and hence has a greater boiling point than aldehyde and ketone. … So the overall molecular mass for a single molecule increases and hence the boiling point increases. Hence due to association of one carboxylic acid with another it has the highest molecular mass.
Why boiling point of phenol is higher than alcohol?
Because phenol has strong intremolecular force between its structure as it cintains 6 carban bonds, whereas alcohol contains 2 carbon bond relatively weaker than phenol, thats why phenol has high boiling point.
Why do alcohols have low boiling points?
The chemical behavior of alcohols is almost entirely determined by the hydroxyl group, since the alkyl portion of the molecule is relatively unreactive. … Hydrogen bonding is not as extensive in ethanol as in water, and so its boiling point is lower than water’s, despite its greater molecular weight.
Do alcohols or ethers have higher boiling points?
(For more information about hydrogen bonding, see chemical bonding: Intermolecular forces.) Because ether molecules cannot engage in hydrogen bonding with each other, they have much lower boiling points than do alcohols with similar molecular weights.